The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (, , June 7, 2001), was a sweeping piece of tax legislation in the United States by President George W. Bush. It is commonly known by its abbreviation EGTRRA, often pronounced “egg-tra” or “egg-terra”, and sometimes also known simply as the 2001 Act (especially where the context of a discussion is clearly about taxes), but is more commonly referred to as one of the two “Bush tax cuts”. The Act made significant changes in several areas of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, including income tax rates, estate and gift tax exclusions, and qualified and retirement plan rules. In general, the Act lowered tax rates and simplified retirement and qualified plan rules such as for Individual retirement accounts, 401(k) plans, 403(b), and pension plans. The changes were so large and numerous that many books and analysis papers were published regarding the changes and how to best take advantage of them. All the 2001 tax cuts were set to expire at the end of 2010 when Congress extended them. Many of the tax reductions in EGTRRA were designed to be phased in over a period of up to 9 years. Many of these slow phase-ins were accelerated by the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (JGTRRA), which removed the waiting periods for many of EGTRRA’s changes. A report published by researchers with the Heritage Foundation claimed that the cuts would result in the complete elimination of the U.S. national debt by fiscal year 2010.