The Vienna Philharmonic, often shortened Philharmonic, is a bullion coin of gold or silver produced by the Austrian Mint (Münze Österreich AG). It is named for the Vienna Philharmonic orchestra (Wiener Philharmoniker), which inspires the design of both sides of the coins. The one troy ounce (ozt) gold version was first introduced in 1989 with a face value of 2,000 Austrian schillings (ATS) and is generally one of the world’s best selling bullion coins. In 2002, with the adoption of the euro currency, the nominal value of the one ounce coin was changed to €100. In 2008, the Mint introduced a one ounce silver version of the coin with a nominal value of €1.50. The silver coin is also one of the top selling bullion coins, ranked third in 2013. Like any bullion coin, the value is based primarily on the metal content and the spot price of that metal on the commodities markets. The gold Philharmonic has a fineness of 999.9 (often written 0.9999, also known as 24 carat or 99.99% pure). In most countries in Europe, the gold Philharmonic is traded VAT-free while the Silver Philharmonic is partly subject to a reduced VAT rate. The coins are minted according to demand and production varies from year to year accordingly. The design on the coin remains the same each year; only the year of issue changes. From the outset, the obverse of the coin depicts the pipe organ in the Vienna Musikverein’s Golden Hall. The reverse of the coin shows instruments of the Vienna Philharmonic, including Vienna horn, bassoon, harp, and four violins centered on a cello. Both designs were produced by the chief engraver of the Austrian Mint, Thomas Pesendorfer.